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ArticlesPredicting the Risk of Heart Failure Based on Clinical Data
  • Jasminder Kaur Sandhu1, Umesh Kumar Lilhore2, Poongodi M3, Navpreet Kaur4, Shahab S. Band5,* Mounir Hamdi3, Celestine Iwendi6, Sarita Simaiya1, M.M. Kamruzzaman7, and Amir H. Mosavi8,9,10,11,*

Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences volume 12, Article number: 57 (2022)
Cite this article 4 Accesses


The disorder that directly impacts the heart and the blood vessels inside the body is cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the World Health Organization reports, CVDs are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, claiming the human life of nearly 23.6 million people annually. The categorization of diseases in CVD includes coronary heart disease, strokes, and transient ischemic attacks (TIA), peripheral arterial disease, aortic disease. Most CVD fatalities are caused by strokes and heart attacks, with an estimated one-third of these deaths currently happening before 60. The standard medical organization "New York Heart Association" (NYHA) categorize the various stages of heart failure as Class I (with no symptoms), Class II (mild symptoms), Class III (comfortable only when in resting position), Class IV (severe condition or patient is bed-bound), and Class V (unable to determine the class). Machine learning-based methods play an essential role in clinical data analysis. This research presents the importance of various essential attributes related to heart disease based on a hybrid machine learning model. The proposed hybrid model SVM-GA is based on a support vector machine and the genetic algorithm. This research analyzed an online dataset obtainable at the UCI Machine Learning Repository with the medical data of 299 patients who suffered from heart failures and are classified as Class III or IV as per the standard NYHA. This dataset was collected through patients' available follow-up and checkup duration and involved thirteen clinical characteristics. The proposed machine learning models were used to calculate feature importance in this research. The proposed model and existing well-known machine learning based-models, i.e., Bayesian generalized linear model, ANN, Bagged CART, Bag Earth, and SVM, are implemented using Python and various performance measuring parameters, i.e., accuracy, processing time, precision, recall, F-measures are calculated. Experimental analysis shows the proposed SVM-GA model strengthens in terms of better accuracy, processing time, precision, recall, F-measures over existing methods.


Heart Failure, Machine Learning, Computing, Healthcare, Biomedical Diagnosis, Hybrid SVM-GA


These days, one of the leading causes of death is heart disease. In the context of biomedical data analysis, predicting heart disease is a significant challenge. Researchers in heart disease data analysis widely use machine learning (ML)-based models. These models help facilitate the decision-making and prediction of vast amounts of data generated by the medical field. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a common illness spread throughout the world. It can cause death due to the slow-down process of blood pumping. The blood pumping process is dropped or slows down due to a viscous substance accumulating in the blood vessels. CVD can be cured at early stages, but it is challenging to identify the heart diseases in clinical data analysis [1]. As per NYHA (New York Heart Association), heart failure is categorized into five stages. When the condition worsens, the class I stage shifts to the class II stage because of less blood supply to all body parts. Due to the changing state of heart failure can cause, medications, lifestyle, and cardiac devices will be changed. I show no symptoms in class, but it is considered a pre-heart failure. A family history of heart failure is the reason for class I, and it can be treated with regular exercise in day-to-day life [2]. It can be prevented by changing its lifestyle. Class II comprises mild symptoms and is considered in the pre-heart failure category. Class III can be diagnosed by the previous and current symptoms. Shortness of breathing, swollen feet, and abdomen are the common symptoms in Class III. Class IV shows the worst condition, which does not improve with medications. It requires bed rest, and sometimes heart surgery is the treatment. Class V is the category in the class style of heart failure is not the diagnosis [3].
There is a requirement to predict CVD in health monitoring. Due to the advanced growth of heart illness, researchers focus on the current status of heart failure, people's awareness for CVD, prediction of CVD control factors, and significance of the ML approach to predict heart failures. These efforts improved the Quality of Service in the health area [4]. There are several approaches applied in the past decade to predict the accuracy of CVD. There are three ML methods: supervised ML, unsupervised ML, and reinforcement ML. In this research paper, five supervised ML methods are implemented on the dataset, namely as Bayesian generalized linear model (BGLM), artificial neural network (ANN), Bagged CART, Bag Earth, and support vector machine (SVM). These ML models calculate the significance of the features [5].
The cases of heart failure increase day by day across the world due to the lifestyle of the people. CVD becomes life-threatening when it is not cured on time. Some symptoms of CVD are not visible and diagnosed for many years. So, there is a requirement to identify heart failure and its stage during early stages [6]. The author, in state of the art, proposes distinct models. However, these approaches are limited to too few features of CVD. Five supervised learning ML approaches on 13 clinical features best classify and predict heart failures [7]. Coronary disease is one of the most complex and deadly diseases. In any situation when the heart fails to pump enough blood to all body parts to start the brain's normal functions. As a result, heart failure can take place and cause death.
This research presents the importance of various essential heart disease attributes based on a hybrid ML model. The proposed hybrid model SVM-GA is based on a SVM and genetic algorithm (GA). The contributions of this complete research are as follows:

The proposed model is based on SVM-GA ML methods.

We carried a fair comparison among the most widely used ML models that enable researchers to decide which classifiers to use.

This paper mainly emphasizes the heart illness of health science. Several ML techniques are used in state-of-the-art to classify and predict CVD. Supervised learning is applied to provide the best results for predicting CVD in the early stages.

Five ML models are applied to the dataset having 13 features.

The proposed model and existing well-known machine learning based-models, i.e., BGLM, ANN, Bagged CART, Bag Earth, and SVM, are implemented using Python and various performance measuring parameters, i.e., accuracy, processing time, precision, recall, F-measures are calculated [8].

The complete research paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discussed introduction, Section 2 discussed the related work in heart disease analysis using ML-based model analysis of heart disease datasets for the last decade. Section 3 discussed materials and methods, proposed hybrid model working. Section 4 discussed experimental results and discussion, and the conclusion and future work related to the research article.

Related Work

Heart failure (HF), also referred to as congestive heart failure, is among the most lethal common diseases, and accurate HF problems and risks are vital for HF treatment and prevention. ANN-based decision support systems that estimate HF risks often presume that HF variables contribute equally to the HF diagnosis. The risk contributions of the attributes, on the other hand, would be different. As a result, the equal risk assumption idea linked with conventional ANN approaches will misrepresent the diagnosis condition of HF patients [09].
Lilhore et al. [10] integrated ANN with a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy_AHP) to compare the effectiveness of the suggested expert system to that of the conventional ANN method. An experienced cardiac clinician assessed thirteen HF features using an online clinical dataset of 297 HF patients, and their contributions were determined. The experimental findings showed that, in contrast to ANN, the proposed system could obtain a mean success rate of 91.10%, which is 4.40% higher. There have been numerous efforts to create models that foresee 30-day re-hospitalization in patients with HF, but only a few studies have enough discriminatory power to be used in clinical practice. Bag et al. [11] constructed ML-based models to predict all-cause readmission 30 days following discharge from an HF hospitalization and compared the effectiveness of ML models to models developed using traditional statistically-based methods.
The authors of [12] utilized traditional bioinformatics time-dependent frameworks, like as Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival graphs, to anticipate death rates and recognize essential factors of 310 patients with HF (age >42 years) to forecast death and recognize essential factors of all these clients. The findings revealed that high BP, renal dysfunction (level of serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL), advancing age, lower ejection fraction (EF) values, and a higher level of anemia are the main attributes contributing to a higher risk of mortality in HF patients. Later, Guleria et al. [13] analyzed the same dataset to compare the results of two different survival prediction models—each for women and men. Gender as a risk parameter is unreliable in predicting patient survival. Although the results presented by [14] are intriguing, standard biostatistics methods have been used to handle the issue, leaving an opportunity for ML approaches.
Further, the authors of [15] applied different ML classifiers on the number of clinical features of the dataset (299 patients with HF) to predict HF patient survival and rank the attributes according to the most relevant risk factors. The experimental findings reveal that the EF and serum creatinine are two sufficient features for predicting survival in HF patients. Moreover, an analysis that included each patient's follow-up month proved the effectiveness of these two features in predicting patient survival. In [16], patient diagnostic, physician, and hospital department records are all contained in electronic health records (EHRs). In general, EHR time series can extract large amounts of unstructured data. The relationships between diagnostic events can be established and eventually anticipate when a patient will be diagnosed by studying and mining these time-based EHRs. However, because the existing EHR data is scarce and non-standardized, it is difficult to use it directly in the research [17].
Alvarez‐Garcia et al. [18] demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of neural network architecture for HF prediction. The key fundamentals of an extended short-term memory network model are often used to design the specific diagnostic occurrences and forecast HF instances utilizing vector representation and one-hot embedding (both terminologies relate to the direction diagnosing occurrences were managed). One of the most crucial factors in the care of HF patients is to keep them out of the hospital as much as possible [19].
In [20], investigators searched for the perfect method to predict readmission rates in heart disease patients for decades. Despite specific scores, clinical use of prediction models for HF hospital treatment is limited. Most scores, namely The HF Patient Severity Index (HFPSI) [21], the REDIN score [21], and the CHARM scores [22], were all validated ambulatory outpatients on chronic HF and comprised biochemical, clinical, and often instrumental data. Jin et al. [23] employed ML approaches to analyze 44,886 HF patients and found that these methods may reliably predict results and recognize clinically differentiated subgroups with variable responses to routinely used medications. The cluster analysis used the eight most predictive indicators to show four clinically meaningful HF subgroups with significant differences in 1-year survival [24]. It was determined that advanced analytics on extensive clinical data collection would identify different patient profiles, improve outcome prognostication, and uncover therapy response heterogeneity [25]. Khennou et al. [26] suggested a new model based on SVM and random forest (RF) that achieved an accuracy of 81.34% on the Cleveland cardiovascular disease sample data. Several researchers have explored integrating GAs with selection and prediction approaches, including sampling methods and enabling more accuracy. ANNs are the most favored attribute selection method in these optimization algorithms [27]. The authors of [28] aggregated a GA to SVM for precise gene analysis and heart disease extracted features classification.

Comparative Analysis of Existing Heart Disease Research
Table 1 represents a comparative analysis of various existing research works based on ML and other models for heart disease analysis [27, 2935].

Table 1. Comparative analysis of existing research work

Study Methods Key findings Dataset Future  scope
Ahmad et al. [29] IoMT assisted heart disease diagnostic system using machine learning technique, i.e., SVM, RF, and AdaBoost The best accuracy was 84.1% for the RF ML method.   Heart disease UCI dataset  More performance measuring parameters can measure. 
Gokulnath and Shantharajah [30] IoT-based diseases prediction   Data-preprocessing and classification of heart disease Healthcare Kaggle dataset Accuracy can be improved.
Ketu and Mishra [31] Naive Bayes, random forest, decision tree Decision trees show better accuracy 90.5% Heart disease UCI dataset More performance measuring parameters can measure.
Kyrimi et al. [32] SVM, kNN, and ensemble learning methods  SVM method shows better accuracy Heart disease UCI dataset Accuracy can be improved by using hybrid models.
Bag et al. [33] GA, RNN, and DNN RNN achieves 91.8% accuracy Heart image dataset  More performance measuring parameters can measure.
Chicco and Jurman [27] Random oversampling method, adaptive sampling method, and SVM SVM method shows a better accuracy of 90.4% Heart disease Kaggle dataset Accuracy can be improved by using hybrid models.
Kyrimi et al. [34] Neural network model CNN CNN achieves more than 90.1% accuracy Image dataset UCI More performance measuring parameters can measure.
Rathod and Patil [35] Genetic algorithm, kNN, and SVM SVM shows more than 90% accuracy and precision Online UCI heart disease dataset Accuracy and precision can be improved.

Materials and Methods

Description of Dataset and Features Analysis
The sample for this research was obtained from the UCI dataset, which includes 299 heart disease patients at the Islamabad Medical College & Hospital and the Allied Hospital in Islamabad (Punjab, Pakistan) [36]. Statistics of the dataset complies with sick people having 105 female and 194 male of the age of 35–90years. Table 2 shows the 13 characteristics/attributes of the heart disease dataset. The dataset contains clinical, body, and style of living details. The disorder was detected by a heart echo preliminary report or written notes by a healthcare professional. The dataset includes the following attributes: patient age, level of serum sodium, details of serum creatinine, patient gender type, and the habit of smoking, level of blood pressure, details of EF, platelets, anemia, level of diabetes, and level ofcreatine phosphokinase (CPK) [37].
In the dataset, anemia is a binary value that indicates a reduction in blood cells and hematocrit. The binary value of hypertension indicates whether or not the person has high blood pressure. The amount of the CPK protease in the body is evaluated in micrograms per liter or micrograms. Diabetes is a binary value that reveals whether the person has symptoms. The percentage of blood that leaves each heart contraction is measured by the EF, expressed in percentages [38]. The person's gender is a Boolean value that indicates whether the person is a male or a female. The count of platelets in the blood is measured in ×103 platelets/mL and the concentration of serum creatinine in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The sodium value in the body is calculated in milli-equivalents per liter (mEq/L). Cigarette smoke is a binary variable that indicates whether or not the person is a smoker. The follow-up period is measured in days. The death event parameter is a binary value that indicates whether the person died during the follow-up [39]. The dataset's central tendency measure shows in Table 2.

Table 2. Dataset details (data type, characteristics, and measurement)

S.No. Characteristic Measurement or unit Data type
1 Age Year Double
2 Anemia Boolean Integer
3 High blood pressure Boolean Integer
4 Creatinine phosphokinase μg/L Integer
5 Diabetes Boolean Integer
6 Ejection fraction Percentage Integer
7 Sex Binary Integer
8 Platelets ×103 platelets/mL Double
9 Serum creatinine mg/dL Double
10 Serum sodium mEq/L Double
11 Smoking Boolean Integer
12 Time Day Integer
13 Death event Boolean Integer

Statistical Summary of Dataset
The data is limited to the training dataset for the summarization purpose. The dataset consists of 209 observations and 13 features [40]. There are no missing values in the data. Age, platelets, and serum creatinine are all double data types; additionally, in integer data type, anemia, diabetes, CPK, high blood pressure, EF, gender type, serum sodium, smoking habit, time, and death event. The first and third quartile computations show that 25% of respondents of the findings have beliefs of that parameter which are fewer than or higher than the amount mentioned.

Fig. 1. Visualization of the correlation matrix.

The graphical representation of the correlation matrix with the numerical values is shown in Fig. 1. The degree of correlation can be interpreted with the help of color, shape, and the numerical values in the matrix. A particular feature is perfectly correlated with itself. The color depicts the strength of correlation. The negative correlation among the dataset's characteristics is reflected by the red shades, while the blue shades reflect the positive correlation [41]. Box plots help visualize the skewness of the feature distribution of datasets for particular characteristics of the heart dataset. The box plot of the 12 input features is shown below in Fig. 2(a)–2(j).

Fig. 2. Visualization of the correlation matrix.

Fig. 2. Box plot of input features: (a) age, (b) anemia, (c) creatinine, (d) diabetes, (e) ejection fractions, (f), blood pressure,(g) platelets, (h) creatinine phosphokinase, (i) serum sodium, and (j) sex.

The data is available on the UCI repository with a detailed description of features mentioned in Table 3. The method and the tuning parameters used to implement these models in R are discussed in Table 3. Table 4 shows the details of ML models and their tuning parameters.

Table 3. Dataset central tendency measure
Feature Min 1st quartile Median Mean 3rd quartile Max
Patient age 40 52 60 60.76 69 94
Anemia 0 0 0 0.445 1 1
High blood pressure 0 0 0 0.3589 1 1
Creatinine phosphokinase 23 119 250 563 582 5861
Diabetes 0 0 0 0.3923 1 1
Ejection fraction 14 30 38 38.26 48 30
Sex 0 0 1 0.6411 1 1
Platelets 25100 213000 255000 260007 302000 742000
Serum creatinine 0.5 0.9 1.1 1.438 1.4 9.4
Serum sodium 121 134 137 136.7 139 148
Smoking 0 0 0 0.3158 1 1
Time 6 74 109 126.1 198 278
Death event 0 0 0 0.3014 1 1

Table 4. Machine learning models and their tuning parameters
S.No. Machine learning classifier Method name Tuning parameters
1 Bayesian generalized linear model bayesglm() family = gaussian
2 Artificial neural network nnet() linout = TRUE, skip = TRUE, MaxNWts = 10000, trace =  FALSE, maxit = 100; size = 10;
3 Bagged CART bagging() coob=TRUE
4 Bag Earth bagEarth() B = 50
5 Support vector machine ksvm() type = "C-svc", kernel = "rbf- dot", prob.model = TRUE

Existing Machine Learning-Based Models
This section describes the working of various existing ML-based models used in this research for comparison with the proposed hybrid model.
3.3.1 Bayesian generalized linear model
BGLM method is a linear regression approach for establishing associations. It is used to solve the problem of overfitting and fit a good dataset into a reasonable size [4247]. Based on preliminary data, it calculates the prior distribution. The sample data is then combined with the prior data to get the posterior distribution. Because it integrates expert opinions with sample data, the information produced by the posterior distribution is closer to genuine information. The R programming languages' arm package has been used to implement BGLM in this work. Bayesian techniques are used for modeling complex research problems [48].
This article uses the bayesglm() function for generalized Bayesian modeling using the Gaussian family. The vital building blocks of GLM are the error distribution of the predicted dependent variable, the linking function on which independent variable effects are collected additively, and the collection of terminologies used for the linear independent variable. The main advantage of this model is that it uses external information to enhance the calculation of the linear model coefficients [49]. Further, this model is expressed as primary parameters w representing weights and the hyperparameters q. The set of observations is denoted by S, the likelihood will be represented by P(S|w), and P(w) denotes the Bayesian prior distribution [50]. Equation (1) represents the BGLM method function.


Equation (1), known as the Bayesian posterior, is a linear function with the scalar value and is a scalar function with non-negative values are log-concave values. This linear model uses Gaussian inference. Bayesian inference can be computed analytically [51].

Algorithm 1. Bayesian generalized linear model
Input: Selection of training and testing dataset partition.
Output: Calculate the prediction accuracy from the computations.

Select an optimum value for Value=Family
while the stop criteria are not fulfilled
do Execute the training procedure of BGLM using the bayesglm() function
Set the default tuning parameters to end while
Return the prediction accuracy as output
It is observed that the prediction output is comparative to the linear model, the generalized linear model. Also, the prediction output converges to the same values with an increase in the sample size.

3.3.2 Artificial neural network
ANN exhibits the properties of the human brain. ANN learns from the training data and provides the classification category as the output. ANN is a non-linear statistical technique that helps understand a complex relationship between explanatory and response variables and enables the discovery of a novel pattern in the data [52]. The structure of an ANN is demonstrated in Fig. 3. The first layer of ANN, which receives the input information from the dataset, is the input layer. The center layer of ANN, known as the hidden layer, performs various mathematical computations on the data to discover the novel pattern. There can be single or multiple hidden layers in an ANN. After these computations, the output yielding the prediction outcome of classification is provided to the output layer [53].
Also, the prediction outcome depends on specific parameters, namely, batch size, weights, biases, rate of learning. In the ANN structure, every node has some assigned weight. The weighted summation of input data and the bias is computed with the help of the transfer function. The activation function is then applied to realize the result. The input neurons are denoted by, and the output neurons are denoted by ψ. The hidden layers use the activation function for the binary classification problem, calculated as [54].


Equation (2) represents the ANN function for the hidden layer. Here are the connected input() and output neuron (). A represents the bias. This article applies the nnet() function for the feed-forward ANN with a single hidden layer [55].

3.3.3 Bagged CART
The main idea of using the ensemble learning technique is to consider multiple models for calculating the prediction accuracy. This approach has the advantage of reducing the high bias and high variance because multiple averaging models are carried out. Bagging Classification and Regression Trees or the Bagged CART model is implemented in two main steps: creating bootstrapping samples and applying the bagging method [56]. Bootstrapping is a statistics-based technique used to create multiple samples from the dataset by not disturbing the properties of the existing dataset. Every individual sample is termed a bootstrap sample and tends to replicate the complexity of original data [57]. The bagging process is represented with the help of Equation (3):


The term Pbag represents the bagged prediction, and the terms (P1*(X) + P2*(X) +….. Pb*(X)) denotes the individual learners based on the input features of the dataset. For the classification problem in this article, the concept of hard-voting is used where the most voted class is considered [3]. In Fig. 4, data points are selected randomly and with replacement properties for equal size samples. In the bagging technique, all the models are constructed parallelly. Bagging is also known as the bootstrap aggregation technique, as all the bootstrap samples are treated equally. The final prediction output is based on the fundamentals of majority voting, as shown in Fig. 3.

Algorithm 2. Artificial neural network
Input: Selection of training and testing dataset partition.
Output: Calculate the prediction accuracy from the computations.
Stop Criteria: Maximum number of iterations as 100

Select an optimum value for Wti and A in the ANN classifier
while the stop criteria are not fulfilled
do Execute the training procedure of ANN using the nnet() function
Set the tuning parameters of nnet(): Number of units in the hidden layer <-10
Set the parameter to linear output units
Add skip-layer connections from input to output
Maximum allowable weights! 100000
end while
Return the prediction accuracy as output

Fig. 3. Structure of feed-forward ANN with single-hidden layer.

3.3.4 Bag Earth
This is a bagging wrapper function for multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) using the earth function. It takes the matrix of input variables and the target outcomes for training the model [58]. The main advantage of this model is that it improves Accuracy and reduces variance, hence eliminating the overfitting issue. This further helps in increasing the stability of models. The Bag Earth model is based on the fundamentals of the MARS model. The model is constructed using Equation (4).


This Bag Earth model is the weighted summation of the primary function Bi(X), which represents the constant coefficient. The primary function can be a constant value, a hinge function, or a product of multiple hinge functions [59]. The main steps involved in the bagging procedure are the original dataset is divided into multiple sub-sets with the same number of tuple records, and the records are selected with replacement, models based on these base observations are created which is known as the base models, these models are trained in parallel and executed independently, the final prediction is calculated based on these intermediate results and thus is more accurate [60]. Fig. 4 shows the structure or Bagged CART method.

Algorithm 3. Bag Earth
Input: Selection of training and testing dataset partition.
Output: Calculate the prediction accuracy from the computations.

Select an optimum value for the number of bootstrap samples as B=50 while the stop criteria are not fulfilled
do Execute the training procedure of Bagged Earth using the bayes_Earth() function end while
Return the prediction accuracy as output

Fig. 4. Structure of Bagged CART.

3.3.5 Support vector machine
It is mainly a dual-use classifier that can be implemented on regression and classification data. However, it is more predominantly preferred for classification data [61]. The primary function of SVM is to provide distinct classification to the data points with the help of a hyperplane in K-dimensional space, where K represents the number of features [62]. SVM is a ubiquitous, effective, and robust supervised ML algorithm commonly used to solve prediction-related problems. Using non-linear kernels, it extracts the various data points and separates them into the feature space of n-dimensions. In this work, the hyperplane partition the feature space into severity classes using a tagged training dataset. A new category is assigned to tagged classes [63]. SVM's operation is based on two primary phases. It first determines the decision limits that accurately identify the training dataset followed by the boundary selection with the most significant distance from the nearest data points from among those boundaries.
The primary goal of this classifier is to find the best hyperplane to partition the class. It contains various variables that require adjusting, such as P and γ. The former variable controls how the accurate prediction and smooth decision boundaries of training data points interact; however, the latter represents the impact of a single training. If the P variable has a significant value, a complex curve boundary is produced that fits all the data points to gather more training data points accurately. Different values of P are necessary for the dataset to avoid the problem of overfitting and create a fully stable curve. Higher and lower values of variables imply that each data point has a close and extensive reach, respectively. Algorithm 1 depicts the steps followed for the execution of the SVM classifier. In this article, SVM is used for the classification scenario. Unlike support vectors, an optimum hyperplane is selected to calculate the highest margin with the closest data points and function. The optimization process for the input is a quadratic equation when training the supervised model. The hyperplane construction is defined by Equation (5).


where W denotes the weight vector, t represents stages, and i represent the bias. To maximize the boundary inside the hyperplane and their closest point denoted the support vector. The kernel trick used in this article is the radial basis kernel or the rbfdot.

Algorithm 4. Support vector machine
Input: Selection of training and prediction dataset.
Output: Calculate the prediction accuracy from the computations.
Select an optimum value for P and γ in the SVM classifier
while the stop criteria are not fulfilled, do
Execute the training procedure of SVM for each training data point Predict function is executed for predicting data points using SVM end while
Return the prediction accuracy as output
3.3.6 Genetic algorithm
A GA is a type of search heuristic method dependent on Charles Darwin's concept of natural development. This method mimics natural law, in which the fittest participants are recruited for propagation to generate the next gen's descendants [64]. Fig. 5 shows the complete working of the GA method.

Fig. 5. Working of GA method.

The working of GA method is as follows.

Initialization of populations: The strength of evolutionary methods relies on their parallel processing searching space expansion. It can occur owing to several alternatives, each examining a neighborhood of the search space. The genetic population is a complete set of solutions that have been initialized randomly.

Selection of population: The selection algorithms should better decide which participants can propagate, produce and who cannot.

Crossover operation: Once all the participants are correctly decided and selected, a crossover operation is performed. This operation merged the participants to generate a better population in the next phase. The fundamental assumption behind the crossover operation is that if two participants who are well-adapted to the ecosystem are chosen, their offspring have genetic data from parents (mother and father).

Mutation operation: The number of a participant's genes and nodes, generally only one, alter arbitrarily due to the mutation operation.

3.3.7 Proposed hybrid SVM-GA model
The proposed hybrid model is based on the SVM and GA method. The hybrid technique suggested in this article is focused on building a hybrid solution that integrates GA and SVM to perform classification before choosing the smallest number of meaningful variables. The SVM is highly advantageous while attempting to perform dichotomous categorization, that is, when distinguishing between two different classes, as explained in the earlier sections. However, a similar principle can be expanded to determine the n classes that a given data originally belonged to the new dataset.
We have selected an SVM-GA procedure in this research work. A SVM is formed by assuming that n types (t1, t2,..., tn) can be described for a feasible ti group inside the input sequence of the entire database. It will aim to identify whether a variable fits the specified ti type of the sampling portion. Finally, to evaluate which particular subset each data point originally belonged to, we developed a set for all the definite SVM entries and implemented them. In choosing the best output, a better degree of data is considered in this approach. We adjusted the GA's conventional function to produce a subset of the population of varied lengths to develop the proposed hybrid model. Fig. 6 shows the working of the proposed hybrid model, and Algorithm 5 shows the complete functioning of the proposed method.

Fig. 6. Working of proposed hybrid (SVM-GA) model.

Algorithm 5. Proposed hybrid SVM-GA method
Input: Dataset D = (P1, P2, P3, P4 . . ., Pn, C), Sizep: Population size, Sizec: length of the Chromosome,
Pcross: Probability of Crossover, Pmut: Probability of Mutation, I: Iterations
Where: features/ variables P1, P2, P3, P4 . . ., Pn, Class C,
Output: Best data samples will get

Step1: Initialize all the parameters
Step 2: Select the dataset D
2.1 Normalization (D); // call normalization function
Step3: Genrates the initial population
3.1 Genrate_Population(D);
3.2 Assign the population
Population(i,j) = Random_Population (D);
Step 4: creates subgroups
4.1 Repeat step till n
4.2 Sub_set(D, n);
Step 5: Calculate the fitness value by SVM
5.1 Fitness_value(Di) = fitness[n];
5.2 Arrange the values based on fitness
Dn= Sort(fitness[n]);
Step6: Apply cross over operation
6.1 Chromosom(I,Population)= {Chromosom (I,Populationcrossover)/ CroosResult}
Step7: Apply mutaion operation
Step 8: Find out the best particpants
8.1 Optimize (Bestindividual(Dn)n fitness[n]);
25: return optimum and best fitness
To achieve the above, we have built an initial procedure that will be accountable for generating the length of each participant in the GA population randomly or by specific size and, subsequently, initializing the values of each gene variable. We have chosen a fraction of arbitrary size from the complete collection of attributes; for this reason, so even if the characteristics created vary, the fraction will be allocated to the individuals. Alternatively, it generates a unique random value until the status stipulated is encountered. This operation is continued until all GA participants have been allocated to a subgroup.

Results and Discussion

The proposed model and existing well-known ML based-models, i.e., BGLM, ANN, Bagged CART, Bag Earth, and SVM methods are implemented using Python and various performance measuring parameters, i.e., accuracy, processing time, precision, recall, F-measures and confusion matrix are calculated. Equations (6) to (9) represent the performance measuring parameters. Fig. 7 shows the confusion matrix to compare the actual and predicted results.

Fig. 7. Confusion matrix.





where TP true positive, FP false positive, TN true negative, and FN false negative.
The sample for this research was obtained from the UCI dataset, which includes 299 heart disease patients at the Islamabad Medical College & Hospital and the Allied Hospital in Islamabad (Punjab, Pakistan) [36]. The dataset consists of 13 clinical features, including the target death event and 12 input features. The UCI dataset was initially divided into the training and testing samples using the stratification 10-fold cross-validation method. The approach subdivides into 10-folds randomly while keeping the number of data for each class training and test data fold. It guarantees that all folds have the same data distribution as their source sample. This training set is now being used to train the proposed SVM-GA. The method is then combined with feature selection methods to improve the classification performance. An analysis of prediction results of five existing machine learning models and proposed SVM-GA is carried out on the training-testing partition size of 70% and 30%. To predict the patients' survival, we used several methodologies. Each method was tested on 50 instances, and the average outcome scores are presented in Table 5. The accuracy of the models is assessed, and the moment required to developing them. At last, K-fold cross-validation is used to test the better classifier model's reliability. The ML models used for this work include BGLM, ANN, Bagged CART, Bag Earth, Random Forest, Decision Tree, and SVM [6567].

Table 5. Experimental results mean of 50 executions
S.No. Machine learning classifier Accuracy (%) Precision (%) Recall (%) F-measure (%) Time taken (ms)
1 Bayesian generalized linear model 88.33 80.51 82.6 84.35 117.04
2 Artificial neural network (ANN) 87.89 88.98 86.7 83.98 112.61
3 Bagged CART 86.67 87.58 87.2 85.6 114.08
4 Bag Earth 85.1 86.57 88.9 85.9 117.47
5 Support vector machine (SVM) 83.33 84.96 86.6 84.65 116.54
6 Random Forests 87.09 85.91 84.95 85.98 111.25
7 Decision tree 85.14 84.09 83.56 84.97 114.56
8 Proposed SVM-GA method 91.49 94.25 93.6 90.89 105.67

Table 5 and Fig. 8 demonstrates the experimental results of the existing seven ML techniques and the proposed SVM-GA model using HCV datasets. It is observed that BGLM and ANN models obtain higher Accuracy of 88.33% because BGLM uses external information to enhance the calculation of the linear model coefficients, and ANN facilitates understanding a complex relationship between explanatory and response variable thereby enabling discovery of a novel pattern in the data. However, the BGLM model outperforms the ANN in terms of the execution time for the models to execute. Also, it is noticed that the models Bagged CART, Bag Earth, and SVM exhibit good accuracy and the considerably same average time for execution. Class imbalance is overcome by the proposed SVM method. The proposed SVM-GA method shows 91.49% accuracy, which is better than other ML methods, and it also takes less processing time of 105.67 ms. Subsequently, the proposed model shows precision 94.25%, recall 93.6%, F-measures 90.89%, which is better than the existing ML model.

Fig. 8. Comparisons graph for proposed and existing ML method mean of 50 executions.


This article considers the CVD Category III and IV of NYHA to predict the death event rate in patients who suffered from HFs. The proposed hybrid model is based on the SVM and GA method. The hybrid technique suggested in this article is focused on building a hybrid solution that integrates GA and SVMs to perform classification before choosing the smallest number of meaningful variables. The proposed method is compared with existing ML models BGLM, ANN, Bagged CART, Bag Earth, and SVM. Both the model's BGLM, ANN outperforms the other models with 88.33% classification accuracy. These prediction results have enormous potential to influence the clinical records and act as a supporting tool for physicians while predicting the death event in case of HF. The most crucial features for predicting the death event are serum creatinine and ejection fraction. Class imbalance is overcome by the proposed SVM method. The findings show that the proposed framework is influential in determining the risk of HF. The proposed model shows accuracy of 91.49%, precision 94.25%, recall 93.6%, F-measures 90.89%, which is better than the existing ML model. As mentioned in the previous section, SVM is robust and helpful when performing forecasting statistics with an error margin. This assessment process has the undeniable benefit of the reproducibility of outcomes. Consequently, each group of factors will often have a relatively similar forecasting model linked with about the same fitness level, utterly contrary to how it would occur in the particular instance of someone using ANN as a benchmark of perfection for genetic participants. In the future, ensemble modeling can be carried out further to enhance the prediction accuracy of the proposed architecture.

Author’s Contributions

Conceptualization, JKS, UKL, AM, PM, SS, CI, SSB, NP. Funding acquisition, AM, SSB. Investigation and methodology, PM, UKL. Writing of the original draft, JKS, PM, UKL. Writing of the review and editing, UKL, SSB, AM. Validation, JKS, UKL, AM, PM, SS, CI, SSB, NP. Formal analysis, JKS, UKL, AM, PM, SS, CI, SSB, NP. Data curation, JKS, UKL, AM, PM, SS, CI, SSB, NP. Visualization, UKL, PM, SS.


The European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Programme SASPRO 2 COFUND Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 945478.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Biography

Affiliation : Chitkara University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chitkara University, Punjab, India
Biography : Dr. Jasminder Kaur Sandhu is working as Assistant Professor, Chitkara University Research and Innovation Network (CURIN), Chitkara University, Punjab. She is Ph.D. in CSE. She is having approximately 10 years of research and teaching experience. She is an active reviewer of many reputed journals such as Springer International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics, IEEE Access. She has to her credit more than 25 publications in reputed SCI-Indexed Journals and International Conferences. Her research interests include Machine Learning, Ensemble Modelling Artificial Intelligence, Soft Computing, Dependability Evaluation, Quality of Service, Wireless Sensor Networks, and Ad-Hoc Networks.

Name : Poongodi M
Affiliation : College of Science and Engineering , Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha
Biography : Xinao Li is studying in Beijing Shichahai Sports School. His research interests include Wushu and Sanda.

Name : Dr. Umesh Kumar Lilhore
Affiliation : KIET group of institutions, Ghaziabad (UP), India
Biography : KIET group of institutions, Ghaziabad (UP), India. He has more than 15 years of experience in teaching and research. He has obtained his Doctorate degree PhD in the area of Cloud Computing. He has expertise in Machine Learning, AI, and Cloud computing, deep learning etc., and published various Top Q1 journals.

Name : Mounir Hamdi, IEEE Fellow
Affiliation : College of Science and Engineering , Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar
Biography : Mounir Hamdi is the founding Dean of the College of Science and Engineering at Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU). He is an IEEE Fellow

Name : Navpreet Kaur
Affiliation : Chitkara School of Health Sciences Chitkara University Punjab
Biography : Experienced Associate Professor with a demonstrated history of working in the higher education industry. Skilled in Clinical Research, Public Speaking, Microsoft Office, Research, and Nursing. Strong education professional with a M.Sc Nursing focused in Pediatric Nurse/Nursing from Desh Bhagat University.

Name : Shahab S. Band
Affiliation : Future Technology Research Center, College of Future, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC
Biography : Shahab S. Band received the M.Sc. degree in artificial intelligence from Iran, and the Ph.D. degree in computer science from the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia, in 2014. He was an Adjunct Assistant Professor with the Department of Computer Science, Iran University of Science and Technology. He also severed as a Senior Lecturer with UM, Malaysia, and with Islamic Azad University, Iran. He participated in many research programs within the Center of Big Data Analysis, IUST and IAU. He has been associated with young researchers and elite club, since 2009. He supervised or co-supervised undergraduate and postgraduate students (master’s and Ph.D.) by research and training. He has also authored, or coauthored papers published in IF journals and attended to high-rank A and B conferences. He is an Associate Editor, a Guest Editor, and a Reviewer of high-quality journals and conferences. He is a professional member of the ACM.

Name : Celestine Iwendi
Affiliation : School of Creative Technologies, University of Bolton, United Kingdom
Biography : Celestine has a PhD in Electronics Engineering, ACM Distinguished Speaker, a Senior Member of IEEE, a Seasoned Lecturer and a Chartered Engineer. A highly motivated researcher and teacher with emphasis on communication, hands-on experience, willing-to-learn and a 21 years technical expertise. Celestine has developed operational, maintenance, and testing procedures for electronic products, components, equipment, and systems; provided technical support and instruction to staff and customers regarding equipment standards, assisting with specific, difficult in-service engineering; Inspected electronic and communication equipment, instruments, products, and systems to ensure conformance to specifications, safety standards, and regulations. He is a wireless sensor network Chief Evangelist, AI, ML and IoT expert and designer. Celestine is an Associate Professor (Senior Lecturer) at the School of Creative Technologies at the University of Bolton, United Kingdom. He is also a Board Member of IEEE Sweden Section, a Fellow of The Higher Education Academy, United Kingdom and a fellow of Institute of Management Consultants to add to his teaching, managerial and professional experiences. Visiting Professor to three Universities and an IEEE Philanthropist

Name : Amir H. Mosavi
Affiliation :
- Obuda University, Budapest, Hungary
- Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
- German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
- Institute of the Information Society, University of Public Service, 1083 Budapest, Hungary
Biography :
Amir H. Mosavi is an Alexander von Humboldt research fellow for big data, IoT, and machine learning. He is a senior research fellow at Oxford Brookes University. Amir completed his graduate studies at London Kingston University, UK, and received his Ph.D. in applied informatics. He is a data scientist for climate change, sustainability, and hazard prediction. He is the recipient of the Green-Talent Award, UNESCO Young Scientist Award, ERCIM Alain Bensoussan Fellowship Award, Campus France Fellowship Award, Campus Hungary Fellowship Award, and Endeavour-Australia Leadership.

Name : M M Kamruzzaman
Affiliation : Department of Computer and Information Science, Jouf University, Sakaka, A-Jouf, KSA
Biography : M. M. KAMRUZZAMAN received his B.E. and M.S degree in Computer Science and Engineering and PhD in Information and Communication Technology. At present he is working at Jouf university, KSA. He worked as a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at Shenzhen University, China. He is a member of Editorial Board and reviewer of few international journals. He is also serving as a TPC of several international conferences. His areas of interest include 5G, Artificial Intelligence, Image Processing, Remote Sensing, GIS, Cloud Computing and Big Data.


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Jasminder Kaur Sandhu1, Umesh Kumar Lilhore2, Poongodi M3, Navpreet Kaur4, Shahab S. Band5,* Mounir Hamdi3, Celestine Iwendi6, Sarita Simaiya1, M.M. Kamruzzaman7, and Amir H. Mosavi8,9,10,11,*, Predicting the Risk of Heart Failure Based on Clinical Data, Article number: 12:57 (2022) Cite this article 4 Accesses

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  • Received26 December 2021
  • Accepted24 March 2022
  • Published15 December 2022
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